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Such orders were particularly popular in the 17th and 18th centuries, and knighthood continues to be conferred in various countries:.

There are other monarchies and also republics that also follow this practice. Modern knighthoods are typically conferred in recognition for services rendered to society, which are not necessarily martial in nature.

The female equivalent is a Dame , for example Dame Julie Andrews. In the United Kingdom , honorific knighthood may be conferred in two different ways:.

The first is by membership of one of the pure Orders of Chivalry such as the Order of the Garter , the Order of the Thistle and the dormant Order of Saint Patrick , of which all members are knighted.

The second is being granted honorific knighthood by the British sovereign without membership of an order, the recipient being called Knight Bachelor.

In the British honours system the knightly style of Sir is accompanied by the given name , and optionally the surname.

The style Dame Heather McCartney could be used for the wife of a knight; however, this style is largely archaic and is only used in the most formal of documents, or where the wife is a Dame in her own right such as Dame Norma Major , who gained her title six years before her husband Sir John Major was knighted.

Since the reign of Edward VII a clerk in holy orders in the Church of England has not normally received the accolade on being appointed to a degree of knighthood.

He receives the insignia of his honour and may place the appropriate letters after his name or title but he may not be called Sir and his wife may not be called Lady.

This custom is not observed in Australia and New Zealand, where knighted Anglican clergymen routinely use the title "Sir". Ministers of other Christian Churches are entitled to receive the accolade.

A knight who is subsequently ordained does not lose his title. A famous example of this situation was The Revd Sir Derek Pattinson , who was ordained just a year after he was appointed Knight Bachelor , apparently somewhat to the consternation of officials at Buckingham Palace.

A clerk in holy orders who is a baronet is entitled to use the title Sir. Some countries, however, historically did have equivalent honorifics for knights, such as Cavaliere in Italy e.

Georg Ritter von Trapp. Additionally there remain a few hereditary knights in the Netherlands. In Belgium , honorific knighthood not hereditary can be conferred by the King on particularly meritorious individuals such as scientists or eminent businessmen, or for instance to astronaut Frank De Winne , the second Belgian in space.

This practice is similar to the conferral of the dignity of Knight Bachelor in the United Kingdom. In addition, there still are a number of hereditary knights in Belgium see below.

In the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth the monarchs tried to establish chivalric orders but the hereditary lords who controlled the Union did not agree and managed to ban such assemblies.

They feared the King would use Orders to gain support for absolutist goals and to make formal distinctions among the peerage which could lead to its legal breakup into two separate classes, and that the King would later play one against the other and eventually limit the legal privileges of hereditary nobility.

The head of state now the President as the acting Grand Master confers knighthoods of the Order to distinguished citizens, foreign monarchs and other heads of state.

The Order has its Chapter. In continental Europe different systems of hereditary knighthood have existed or do exist. Ridder , Dutch for "knight", is a hereditary noble title in the Netherlands.

It is the lowest title within the nobility system and ranks below that of " Baron " but above " Jonkheer " the latter is not a title, but a Dutch honorific to show that someone belongs to the untitled nobility.

The collective term for its holders in a certain locality is the Ridderschap e. Ridderschap van Holland, Ridderschap van Friesland, etc.

In the Netherlands no female equivalent exists. Before , the history of nobility is separate for each of the eleven provinces that make up the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

In each of these, there were in the early Middle Ages a number of feudal lords who often were just as powerful, and sometimes more so than the rulers themselves.

In old times, no other title existed but that of knight. In the Netherlands only 10 knightly families are still extant, a number which steadily decreases because in that country ennoblement or incorporation into the nobility is not possible anymore.

Likewise Ridder , Dutch for "knight", or the equivalent French Chevalier is a hereditary noble title in Belgium. Like in the Netherlands, no female equivalent to the title exists.

Belgium still does have about registered knightly families. The German and Austrian equivalent of an hereditary knight is a Ritter.

This designation is used as a title of nobility in all German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing above " Edler " noble and below " Freiherr " baron.

For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet".

In the Kingdom of Spain , the Royal House of Spain grants titles of knighthood to the successor of the throne.

This knighthood title known as Order of the Golden Fleece is among the most prestigious and exclusive Chivalric Orders. The Royal House of Portugal historically bestowed hereditary knighthoods to holders of the highest ranks in the Royal Orders.

There are very few hereditary knights and they are entitled to wear a breast star with the crest of the House of Braganza.

In France, the hereditary knighthood existed in regions formerly under Holy Roman Empire control. One family ennobled with that title is the house of Hauteclocque by letters patents of , even if its most recent members used a pontifical title of count.

There are traces of the Continental system of hereditary knighthood in Ireland. Notably all three of the following belong to the Hiberno-Norman FitzGerald dynasty , created by the Earls of Desmond , acting as Earls Palatine , for their kinsmen.

They were attainted in for participation on the Jacobite side in the Williamite wars. Since , the British Crown has awarded a hereditary title in the form of the baronetcy.

Baronets are not peers of the Realm, and have never been entitled to sit in the House of Lords, therefore like knights they remain commoners in the view of the British legal system.

However, unlike knights, the title is hereditary and the recipient does not receive an accolade. The position is therefore more comparable with hereditary knighthoods in continental European orders of nobility, such as ritter , than with knighthoods under the British orders of chivalry.

However, unlike the continental orders, the British baronetcy system was a modern invention, designed specifically to raise money for the Crown with the purchase of the title.

Women were appointed to the Order of the Garter almost from the start. In all, 68 women were appointed between and , including all consorts. Though many were women of royal blood, or wives of knights of the Garter, some women were neither.

They wore the garter on the left arm, and some are shown on their tombstones with this arrangement. In , a proposal was made to revive the use of robes for the wives of knights in ceremonies, but this did not occur.

Queens consort have been made Ladies of the Garter since Queens Alexandra in , [57] Mary in and Elizabeth in The first non-royal woman to be made Lady Companion of the Garter was The Duchess of Norfolk in , [58] the second was The Baroness Thatcher in [59] post-nominal: On 30 November , Lady Fraser was made Lady of the Thistle , [60] the first non-royal woman post-nominal: Memorials of the Order of the Garter.

The first woman to be granted a knighthood in modern Britain seems to have been H. Her daughter received the same honor in , as well as her granddaughter in The order was open to "princes and chiefs" without distinction of gender.

The first European woman to have been granted an order of knighthood was Queen Mary, when she was made a Knight Grand Commander of the same order, by special statute, in celebration of the Delhi Durbar of The other was possibly for a female knight.

Here is a quote from Menestrier, a 17th-century writer on chivalry: Sometimes, when some male fiefs were conceded by special privilege to women, they took the rank of chevaleresse, as one sees plainly in Hemricourt where women who were not wives of knights are called chevaleresses.

It was the first religious order of knighthood to grant the rank of militissa to women. However, this order was suppressed by Sixtus V in In his Glossarium s.

Gertrude in Nivelles Brabant , after a probation of 3 years, are made knights militissae at the altar, by a male knight called in for that purpose, who gives them the accolade with a sword and pronounces the usual words.

The inhabitants [of Tortosa] being at length reduced to great streights, desired relief of the Earl, but he, being not in a condition to give them any, they entertained some thoughts of making a surrender.

The Earl, finding himself obliged, by the gallentry of the action, thought fit to make his acknowlegements thereof, by granting them several Privileges and Immunities, and to perpetuate the memory of so signal an attempt, instituted an Order, somewhat like a Military Order, into which were admitted only those Brave Women, deriving the honour to their Descendants, and assigned them for a Badge, a thing like a Fryars Capouche, sharp at the top, after the form of a Torch, and of a crimson colour, to be worn upon their Head-clothes.

He also ordained, that at all publick meetings, the women should have precedence of the Men. That they should be exempted from all Taxes, and that all the Apparel and Jewels, though of never so great value, left by their dead Husbands, should be their own.

These Women having thus acquired this Honour by their personal Valour, carried themselves after the Military Knights of those days.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 February For other uses, see knight disambiguation and knights disambiguation.

For the Roman social class sometimes referred to as "knights", see Equites. Masters and vice supreme masters, as well as former masters and former vice supreme masters, are also denoted by their gold swords.

Charity is the foremost principle of the Knights of Columbus. According to one commentator, "there is hardly a corner of the Catholic world where the resources of this international force have not left an impression.

On average in , each Knight of Columbus contributed 38 hours of community service. United in Charity, a general, unrestricted endowment fund , was introduced at the Supreme Council meeting to support and ensure the overall long-term charitable and philanthropic goals of the order.

The fund is wholly managed, maintained, and operated by Knights of Columbus Charities, Inc. The need for a reserve fund for times of epidemic was seen from the earliest days, but it was rejected several times before finally being established in Since its first loan to St.

Rose Church in Meriden, Connecticut , in the late s, the Knights of Columbus have made loans to parishes, dioceses, and other Catholic institutions.

Late in it was learned that the land upon which Yankee Stadium was built was for sale. During this time, the amount of money invested in common stock also increased.

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As of [update] there were 1,, knights, and membership has grown each year for 44 consecutive years. Each member belongs to one of 15, councils around the world.

In addition, there is a "round table" [nb 6] presence in Lithuania. Knights of Columbus councils , Fourth Degree assemblies , and Columbian Squire circles have similar officers.

In the councils, officer titles are prefixed with "Worthy", while in assemblies officer titles are prefixed with "Faithful". The Supreme Council is the governing body of the order and is composed of elected representatives from each jurisdiction.

The Supreme Council comprises [85]. In a manner similar to shareholders at an annual meeting, the Supreme Council elects insurance members to serve three year terms on the Supreme Board of Directors.

They then choose from their own number the other senior operating officials of the order, including the Supreme Knight and Deputy Supreme Knight , a Supreme Secretary, a Supreme Treasurer, a Supreme Advocate, and a Supreme Physician, each of whom serves a one-year term.

Directors, other than Supreme Officers or Assistant Supreme Officers, are limited to serving three years. The Knights of Columbus invites the head of state of every country in which they operate to the annual Supreme Convention.

President Ronald Reagan spoke at the Centennial Convention in Bush appeared in Bush sent videotaped messages before he attended in person at the convention.

Fourth degree members belong to one of 3, assemblies, including 75 created in The college councils program started with the chartering of Notre Dame Council in , [] drawn from student members of the local Santa Maria Council Since its earliest days, the Knights of Columbus has been a "Catholic anti-defamation society.

As part of the effort, the order distributed pamphlets, and lecturers toured the country speaking on how Catholics could love and be loyal to America.

It would take an additional three years to collect the total amount. Since its founding, the Knights of Columbus has been involved in evangelization.

The creation of the 4th Degree, with its emphasis on patriotism, performing a valuable anti-defamation function as well as asserting claims to Americanism.

It was with this experience in setting up educational programs that they were able to run education and occupational skills training for veterans returning from World War I.

In , the Knights started the Catholic Information Service CIS to provide low-cost Catholic publications for the general public as well as for parishes, schools, retreat houses, military installations, correctional facilities, legislatures, the medical community, and for individuals who request them.

Since then, CIS has printed millions of booklets, and thousands of people have enrolled in CIS correspondence and on-line courses.

This was "in response to blatant anti-Catholic bias in other religious media in order to educate non-Catholics about the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church.

The order sponsors a number of international awards. The first, the Gaudium et Spes Award , is named after the document from the Second Vatican Council , and is the highest honor bestowed by the order.

The second international award, also only given "when merited", is the Caritas Award. Named for the theological virtue alternatively translated as either charity or love, it recognizes "extraordinary works of charity and service.

Additionally, at its annual convention each year, the order recognizes other individuals and councils with awards. These include the Family of the Year award, and prizes for the best activities in the categories of church, community, council, culture of life , family, and youth.

Additionally, top selling general and field insurance agents are recognized, as are top recruiting individuals and councils. While the Knights were active politically from an early date, in the years following the Second Vatican Council , as the "Catholic anti-defamation character" of the order began to diminish as Catholics became more accepted, the leadership "attempted to stimulate the membership to a greater awareness of the religious and moral issues confronting the Church.

The leadership of the order has been, at times, both liberal and conservative. Carmody and Luke E. Hart were both political conservatives, but John J.

The current Supreme Knight, Carl A. While the Knights of Columbus support political awareness and activity, United States councils are prohibited by tax laws from engaging in candidate endorsement and partisan political activity due to their non-profit status.

In addition to performing charitable works, the Knights of Columbus encourages its members to meet their responsibilities as Catholic citizens and to become active in the political life of their local communities, to vote and to speak out on the public issues of the day.

In the political realm, this means opening our public policy efforts and deliberations to the life of Christ and the teachings of the Church.

In accord with our Bishops, the Knights of Columbus has consistently maintained positions that take these concerns into account.

The order opposed persecution of Catholics in Mexico during the Cristero War , and later proposed a framework for a lasting peace after World War II based on Catholic philosophy.

The Knights have also adopted resolutions opposing communism , [] advocating a culture of life, [nb 11] [] defining marriage as the union of one man and one woman, [] in defense of religious liberty, [] and promoting faithful citizenship.

As part of their efforts to build a culture of life , Supreme Conventions have adopted resolutions prohibiting people "who do not support the legal protection of unborn children, or who advocate the legalization of assisted suicide or euthanasia" from attending Knights of Columbus events or bestowing honors upon them.

During the 20th century, the order established the Commission on Religious Prejudices, and the Knights of Columbus Historical Commission which combated racism.

Kauffman, "If the Knights displayed a conservative tenor, it was not political conservatism but rather cultural conservatism.

In , the order launched Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors, a money management firm that invests money in accordance with Catholic social teaching.

As of [update] , Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors has more than dioceses, religious orders, and other organizations as clients. In addition to the wholly owned subsidiary, it also purchased 20 percent of Boston Advisors, a boutique investment management firm, managing assets for institutional and high-net-worth investors.

Many notable Catholic men from all over the world have been Knights of Columbus. In the United States, some of the most notable include John F.

In , six other Knights, known as the Mexican martyrs who were killed during the repression following the s revolution, were declared saints by Pope John Paul II.

Mullen and adopted at the second Supreme Council meeting on May 12, This represents the Catholic identity of the order. Mounted on the shield are three objects: In ancient Rome , the fasces was carried before magistrates as an emblem of authority.

The order uses it as "symbolic of authority which must exist in any tightly-bonded and efficiently operating organization.

The short sword, or dagger, was a weapon used by medieval knights. The shield as a whole, with the letters "K of C", represents "Catholic Knighthood in organized merciful action.

The Fourth Degree emblem features a dove, a cross, and a globe. In the tradition of the Knights these symbols "typify the union of the three Divine Persons in one Godhead, referred to as the most Blessed Trinity.

Styled with the continents of the western hemisphere in white, the blue globe represents God the Father. A red Isabella cross, for the queen who sponsored Columbus, serves as a symbol of God the Son.

The white dove is a symbol of peace and God the Holy Spirit. The emblem of the Squires symbolizes the ideals which identify a squire. On the arms of a Maltese cross are the letters P , which represents the physical development necessary to make the body as strong as the spirit; I , which stands for the intellectual development needed for cultural and mental maturity; S , which represents the spiritual growth and practice of our faith; and C , which stands for the development of citizenship and civic life.

C , representing Christ and also Christopher Columbus; S , the Squires; and K , the Knights of Columbus, by whom the Squires program is sponsored, are intertwined in the center of the cross.

They are the three foundations of the program. The Latin motto, " Esto Dignus ", encircles the emblem. Translated into English, it means "Be Worthy".

The newer organization renamed itself the Catholic Daughters of the Americas in and both have structures independent of the Knights of Columbus.

A proposal in to establish councils for women did not pass, and was never proposed again. Founded in in Duluth, Minnesota, this international fraternity for boys 10—18 has grown to over 5, circles.

Squires have fun and share their Catholic faith, help people in need, and enjoy the company of friends in social, family, athletic, cultural, civic and spiritual activities.

Through their local circle, Squires work and socialize as a group of friends, elect their own officers, and develop into Catholic leaders.

The Squire Roses are a youth sorority run by individual state councils for Catholic girls between the ages of 10 and One representative from each State Council for the first two thousand insurance members, and one representative for the first two thousand associate members, and one representative for each additional two thousand insurance members or major part thereof and one representative for each additional two thousand associate members or major part thereof represented in said State Council as shall appear from the records of the Supreme Secretary.

This excess amount of insurance membership will then be applied toward an additional associate member delegate pursuant to the requirements of this section.

But no State Council shall be entitled to more than eight elected representatives to the Supreme Council. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Not to be confused with Knights of St Columba. History of the Knights of Columbus. Charitable activities of the Knights of Columbus.

Supreme Officers of the Knights of Columbus. Their fearless style of fighting became a model for other military orders. In the late 12th century, Muslim armies retook Jerusalem and turned the tide of the Crusades, forcing the Knights Templar to relocate several times.

The Fall of Acre in marked the destruction of the last remaining Crusader refuge in the Holy Land. European support of the military campaigns in the Holy Land began to erode over the decades that followed.

By , the Knights Templar lost its foothold in the Muslim world and established a base of operations in Paris.

There, King Philip IV of France resolved to bring down the order, perhaps because the Templars had denied the indebted ruler additional loans.

Many of the knights were brutally tortured until they confessed to false charges, which included heresy, homosexuality, financial corruption, devil worshipping, fraud, spitting on the cross and more.

A few years later, dozens of Templars were burned at the stake in Paris for their confessions. De Molay was executed in The Catholic Church has acknowledged that the persecution of the Knights Templar was unjustified.

The church claims that Pope Clement was pressured by secular rulers to destroy the order. While most historians agree that the Knights Templar fully disbanded years ago, there are some people who believe the order went underground and remains in existence in some form to this day.

Currently, there are several international organizations styled after the Knights Templar that the public can join.

These groups have representatives around the world and aim to uphold the values and traditions of the original medieval order.

More recently, stories about the legendary Templars have found their way into popular books and movies.

The popular novel and film The Da Vinci Code presents a theory that the Templars were involved in a conspiracy to preserve the bloodline of Jesus Christ.

Who were the Knights Templar?: Busting the Myth of Friday the 13th and the Knights Templar: We strive for accuracy and fairness.

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